Constantly challenges in teaching process in elementary school

Құмар Мамыр Қанатқызы
Учитель английского языка
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In particular article we will discuss the main issues and difficulties in teaching process. Teaching children is one of the most rewarding experiences a teacher can ever have. Why is this so? Young learners learn naturally. The world is opened up to them, which they find fascinating if they can make sense of it. 
English is being taught at increasingly younger ages in an expanding number of countries. So today, teenagers are no longer young learners of English [5].
In elementary school, students develop many basic reading strategies that they will depend upon throughout their lives. Teachers must work to build a foundation of literacy for their pupils by presenting an assortment of reading opportunities and instruction on language and sentence development. With engaging and educational English lessons, teachers can set their students up for reading success [1]. 
Providing adequate time for students to write is one essential element of an effective writing instruction program. However, recent surveys of elementary teachers indicate that students spend little time writing during the school day. Students need dedicated instructional time to learn the skills and strategies necessary to become effective writers, as well as time to practice what they learn. Time for writing practice can help students gain confidence in their writing abilities. As teachers observe the way students write, they can identify difficulties and assist students with learning and applying the writing process [4].
1st and 2nd grade: They love to be active and often enjoy doing the same thing over and over again with just a few variations to the activity.
 3rd and 4th grade: Children at this age have the energy of the 1st and 2nd graders, but can understand the activities of the older students. Their natural curiosity is also at a peak during this period [3]. 
What is the goal of the English class?
  • The goal of the English class, through the use of beautiful texts, is to gain an understanding of human nature.
  • This knowledge acquired through good literature will be a powerful help for our spiritual life.
  • It also helps us become accustomed to express beautifully, either orally or in writing, ideas and sentiments which are accurate and personal [2].
  1. Reading aloud to the class
Language is primarily spoken. This is why the teaching of language, as an art imitating nature, must use the spoken or phonetic form of words as the primary means for teaching reading. Reading aloud should be the first way of testing reading comprehension, of making the learner familiar with the role of punctuation marks, or engaging the learner in the full emotional experience that literature ought to yield, or providing an appreciation for the cadenced and hence ordered character of all works of the mind. One can teach a pupil to put a period at the end of a sentence by first identifying the end of a sentence as a place where one drops one’s voice. Not only should the students read aloud, but the teacher should also read to the class. This can be done at the end of the day. The children always look forward to a good story. Reading aloud can be an excellent homework assignment as well. Parents and other siblings can easily listen for five minutes a day. This is an excellent way to show children that reading is important to the family, too.
  1. The role of grammar
Grammar is the study of a language, spoken or written. First, of the elements which constitute this language: this is morphology. Secondly, of the functions and relations which link the elements to one another is syntax.
Grammar could be called a descriptive knowledge. What is the object of this description? The elements of the language and their arrangements, therefore the structure of the language, its constructions, the diagrams, the models in which human thought is expressed, since language is the body of the thought.
The study of grammar, while indispensable, is secondary in the study of any language, beginning with our own. Before all else, through the contact with great works of literature, the goals of the English class are to root us in a tradition, and to make us discern the true nature of man. It is also to teach us how to express ourselves. Besides, even to express ourselves correctly, the study of grammar does not suffice in itself; it is an auxiliary, and nothing more. Reading great writers teaches us more on this level, owing to a prolonged and frequent contact with beautiful language.
As a consequence, we should seldom if ever isolate the study of grammar from the study of a text. It is very important to connect this technical study of the language to the expression of thought, since grammar is but an instrument. [2]. 
  1. Dictation
Dictation is very useful in teaching correct writing. The children work from models of beautiful writing. They see and study correct spelling and punctuation and are able to enjoy excellent writing of various styles. Laura Berquist3, the renowned educator, has analyzed well this topic, which is of great importance for a classical education.
Prepared Dictation
In a prepared dictation, the teacher goes through the passage with the child, line by line, noting and giving a reason for every capital, comma, semicolon, colon, period, question mark, exclamation mark, and quotation mark. Difficult spellings are gone over as well. The teacher then dictates the passage to the child, who writes it from the dictation. This way the student gives concentrated attention to the mechanics of writing in a situation where he is writing material that has been put together because it goes together, as opposed to material artificially put together to try to highlight examples of writing mechanics.
Unprepared Dictation
In an unprepared dictation, the teacher reads an entire passage that the child has not studied beforehand (although it could be a text from his reader that he has seen before). As soon as the student finishes the first set of words, the teacher reads the rest of the sentence, waits for the student to write it and then moves on to the next set of words. The dictation doesn’t take long this way, but it does provide a model of good writing and practice in spelling and punctuation.
Auto-Dictation
Another form of dictation is called auto-dictation. The child has to write a text from memory. A good example of this might be a poem or a song that has been learned previously [2]. 
  1. Read picture books
Read picture books in early grades so budding readers can draw information from the images to enhance their understanding of the text. In early reading development, readers can benefit from the presence of pictures. By looking at the pictures while they read, students can infer meanings of unknown words. Additionally, pictures often make the text more engaging for younger pupils [1]. 
 
List of references:
  1. www.englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/