Қоршаған ортаға зиянсыз мұнай мен газды өңдеп алу

Ecходжаева Улжалгас Исахановна
Шет тілі пән мұғалімі
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Objectives of the lesson: The objective is to identify, develop and transfer critical, cost effective, newtechnologies that can provide policy makers and industry with the ability to develop reserves in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. 
Education: An introduction to cost effective oil and gas production.
Developing: Development process for oil and gas production.
Educative: Expanding knowledge on a new theme,  passing grammar on the given subject, and a comprehensive search for that theme.
Lesson type: mixed lesson
Methods of teaching: «Development of new knowledge», «Question-answer»   and «Interactive method» «Grammar gaming method» «”Song” verse related to grammar», «Playing Sounds» method  «Recitative lesson-Intellectual  show»                                                                                                                                         
Lesson visions: pictures, slideshow, cards.
Interdisciplinary Interaction: Russian language, Kazakh language, Geography.
Technical training aids:
     — notebook;

     — Disk with tutorials;
     — slide for new theme;
                              Course progress:
  1. Organization time: (2 min.) Hello, dear disciples! We are about to begin our next lesson. In our lesson today, we get new knowledge and new knowledge about Environmentally –Friendly and cost effective drilling fluids oil. We analyze your knowledge of the past lectures, clarify and deepen. Today’s lesson requires many visual materials, terms, and concepts to be kept in memory. That is, there is a great and interesting work for you during the lesson. Therefore, first, let’s take a look at your training.
    (the teacher checks the attendance of the students, their readiness)
II.Development of cognitive activity of students: (10min.)
Teacher:
Today’s lesson is called » Environmentally –Friendly and cost effective drilling fluids oil». Before I start a new theme, I’ll check your homework.                                                                          Students will read and present their presentations and give answers to questions.
 (Students will be asked questions about their presentations)
III. Explaining the new theme: (30min.)                                                                                                  New Lesson Plan:                                                                                                                                     1. Introducing Crammar.                                                                                                                                              2. Question answear and grammar gaming.                                                                                                        3. Environmentally –Friendly and cost effective drilling fluids.                                                                     4.The refreshing moment.                                                                                                                           5.Working on a new theme with a dictionary.                                                                                          6.Mud Characteristics.
1. Introducing Crammar.                                                                                                                                              1.What is a preposition?                                                                                                                              A preposition is a word used to link nouns, pronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns. In some cases, you’ll find prepositions in front of gerund verbs.                                 Types of Prepositions:                                                                                                               There are three types of prepositions, including time prepositions, place prepositions, and direction prepositions.
Time prepositions are those such as before, after, during, and until; place prepositions are those indicating position, such as around, between, and against; and direction prepositions are those indicative of direction, such as across, up, and down. Each type of preposition is important.                     Preposition Exercises:                                                                                                                                   The following exercises will help you gain greater understanding about how prepositions work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.
  1. The bone was _______ the dog.
    1. About
    2. For
    3. After
    4. Considering
Answer: B. The bone was for the dog.
  1. We are going on vacation _______ August.
    1. On
    2. At
    3. In
    4. Since
Answer: C. We are going on vacation in August.
  1. Please put the vase ________ the table.
    1. In
    2. On
    3. For
    4. Over
Answer: B. Please put the vase on the table.
  1. I received a present ________ Janet.
    1. From
    2. Of
    3. By
    4. About
Answer: A. I received a present from Janet.
  1. School begins ________ Monday.
    1. In
    2. On
    3. From
    4. Since Answer: B. School begins on
    5. Question answear and grammar gaming. Grammar gaming.                                                                                                                                                 Gives examples. Get acquainted with new dictionaries and grammar in game.                                3. Environmentally-Friendly and Cost-Effective Drilling Fluid oil and gas.                                              «Energy is a fundamental part of the global economy. A “clean” fuels refinery.
      Instead of fixing the existing facilities, I propose a proactive approach that considers environmental issues during the design of the processing scheme. The result would be sulfur-free, high-performance, clean-burning transportation fuels. My hope is that this new refining scheme will be cost-effective when compared with the combined cost of constructing a new refinery using the current technology and the cost of environmental fix-ups.Inherent in this design is the elimination or minimization of solid wastes, including spent catalysts, coke, and air or water toxics. This is done by replacing current facilities with environmentally benign processes. In this example, I propose that light olefins will be the major intermediates for synthesizing liquid transportation fuels. Thus, sulfur can be completely eliminated from the liquid fuel products, and the burning qualities of the fuels and their hydrogen content will meet or exceed the anticipated product specifications.The following key technologies are unique to this “clean” refinery:
  • A distillation method that prevents metal (nickel and vanadium) contamination of all the feed streams to the catalytic processing units.
  • A thermal process that handles metal-contaminated feed streams.
  • A technology that converts coke to H2, CO, H2S, NH3, and nickel and vanadium oxides.
A new hydrogenation catalyst that saturates the feed streams with hydrogen and removes all the sulfur and nitrogen impurities.                                                                                                        Building on present technologies.
Each step uses a known technology, but increasing acceptance of a proactive approach will provide many opportunities to generate innovative concepts, resulting in advances in the so-called “mature technologies”.This proactive approach I propose calls for developing environmentally compatible olefin upgrading technologies, including isomerization, oligomerization, hydration, and etherification. The potential of revolutionizing the refining industry by producing truly premium-quality clean fuel products springs from years of olefin research, coupled with the availability of a large variety of new catalytic materials.To protect the environment, catalytic processing of resids, delayed coking processes, and HF isobutane alkylation processes are excluded in the clean refinery. The naphtha hydrocracker is eliminated, and the naphtha reforming capacity is sharply reduced in response to the anticipated specification that gasoline be richer in hydrogen, with fewer olefins and aromatics. Because hydrogen will be produced by the coke gasification process, the size of the conventional hydrogen plant will be less than one-fourth of that in the current refinery.                                                                           Natural gas. An economic analysis of natural gas, which is a light gas, is complicated by transportation factors and is beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, I am certain that it makes no sense to convert pipelined domestic natural gas to liquid fuels without a federal mandate or governmental subsidy similar to that for using ethanol produced from corn as a gasoline additive.Sufficient technological leads have been discovered in recent years to undertake a proactive approach to producing transportation fuels in a way that is friendly to the environment. However, the development and commercialization of these leads require a concerted R&D effort in catalysts, processes, and products. My economic analysis shows favorably the overall process and product value of this “clean” refinery compared with a startup refinery based on the current technologies. This new clean refinery will be able to meet any major shift in market demands of transportation fuels or any crude oil shortage. This proactive approach could also lead to the coproduction of clean synthetic lube oil basestocks, petrochemicals, and syngas-to-liquid products.
 4.The refreshing moment. (Songverse related to grammar) (5 min.)                                                                                                                                              5.Working on a new theme with a dictionary. (5 min.)                                                                                                                                                                               Playing «Sounds».
Purpose:
To develop a vocabulary from the sounds of the voices, to raise the vocabulary of the students, to educate quick thinking.

Game Condition: Divide the class into several groups and play the game in a race. Students must find the words correctly pronouns and transfer.                                                                         Write down the transcription of the following words and practise their pronunciation:                       — hydrostatic pressure                                                                                                                          — occurrence                                                                                                                                              — circulation                                                                                                                                              — pressure surges                                                                                                                                              — hydraulics                                                                                                                                                     — equalization                                                                                                                                              — centrifuges                                                                                                                                         — viscous                                                                                                                                                        — hydratable                                                                                                                                                 — slough
  1. Approving: Lesson: The aims: To enrich pupils knowledge about the Environmentally-Friendly and cost effective drilling fluid oil and gas, to develop students reading thinking listening and speaking habits.  To help you understand the content of the whole lesson, and to sum up, I have prepared an interactive game for you, the name of the game that “who wants to become a millionaire”, the questions in the game are summed up in the form of four variants, you need to find the right answear. (10 min.)                                                                                               
  2. Assessment: (20 min.) 1. Read and translate the text. While reading, choose the suitable heading for the part of the extract:                                                                                                                                      Density                                                                                                                                                      Fluid loss                                                                                                                                                   Oil content                                                                                                                                               Solids content                                                                                                                                     Viscosity                                                                                                                                Drilling fluid, or mud, has an important effect on hole-making potential and performs other functions vital to cost-effective drilling. Drilling fluid cools and lubricates the bit and drill stem and provides a means for bit cuttings to be circulated out of the hole. The column of mud in the hole supports the walls of the wellbore and prevents the entry of formation fluids into the well. The presence of formation oil and gas can be detected in irregularities in mud volume and weight. Drilling fluid can also be used to drive downhole drilling motors.The mud program is not the same for every well. In fact, in the course of drilling a well, the composition of the mud can be changed in order to deal with variations in formation properties and mechanical factors that affect the drilling rate. The mud properties with the greatest effect on penetration rate are density, solids content, viscosity, water loss, and oil content.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
 
  1. a) Lightweight mud (less than 10 ppg) permits fast drilling because the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column is kept to a mini­mum. Lower hydrostatic pressure allows formation rock chips that are formed by the action of the bit to be removed with less weight on bit and rotary speed than heavier-weight muds require. In effect, the formation rock drills more easily.When mud density is too high, a high differen­tial pressure is created between the mud column and the formation, and what is known as a chip hold-down effect is created. In such cases, mechanical energy on the bit must be increased to avoid a substantial drop in the drill­ing rate caused by the bit cutters drilling the same material over and over.The use of low-weight muds when possible is a definite cost saver. Good drilling rates are achieved, cutting drilling time and bit costs. There are fewer occurrences of lost circulation and other interruptions to the work. Stuck pipe and pressure surges caused by high differential pressure can be eliminated, saving valuable trip­ping time and avoiding unnecessary fishing jobs.In spite of its potential drawbacks, heavy-­weight mud (16-18 ppg) is necessary in cer­tain drilling situations. Without sufficient hydrostatic pressure to overcome formation pressures, the possibility of a kick exists. Main­taining the proper mud weight and carefully controlling other mud characteristics are the best ways to prevent blowouts.b) Low-solids fluid (water, where feasible) will enable faster penetration rates than lightweight mud, provided that bit weight, rotary speed, and hydraulics are con­stant. Low-solids mud is usually used in drilling situations in which mud weights are no greater than 10 ppg and circulation rates are high enough to lift cuttings out of the hole.Small particles of weighting material in the mud can have a detrimental effect on rate of penetration. These particles plug the fractures where a chip has been sheared from the hole bottom, delaying fluid pressure equalization over the chip and holding it in place. In this way, fine solids in the mud contribute to the chip hold-down effect, inhibiting the removal of formation cuttings and decreasing the penetration rate.Solids content can be kept low by a number of different means. Circulating through the reserve pit allows fine solids to settle out of the mud. Devices like desilters and centrifuges maintain low solids content mechanically. Cen­trifuges are normally used on weighted muds, although they may be used with mud cleaners to maintain minimum mud weights. Chemicals that cause the fine particles to aggregate and settle out as larger particles are also used.Whenever downhole conditions permit, so-called clear water drilling is common, often to depths of several thousand feet.c) Increases in viscosity, the mud’s resistance to flow, cause circulation pressure losses, which lessen bit hydraulic horsepower (BHHP) and make bottomhole cleaning more difficult. Highly viscous or thick muds are more likely to hold formation chips on bottom than are low-viscosity muds, reducing the penetra­tion rate. Gel strength, the ability of a mud to keep cuttings from settling when circulation is stopped, should also be observed carefully so that a clean hole is maintained.Sometimes, a quantity of high-viscosity mud is circulated through the system for hole-cleaning purposes. This operation, known as a high-viscosity sweep, is a good way to clear the hole of unwanted junk before setting casing or running a diamond bit.   Give the adequate Russian variants for the following word combinations:                                    An important effect on hole-making potential; functions vital to cost-effective drilling; a means for bit cuttings to be circulated out of the hole; to deal with variations in formation properties; to avoid a substantial drop in the drill­ing rate; a definite cost saver; in spite of potential drawbacks; to have a detrimental effect on rate of penetration; to delay fluid pressure equalization over the chip; whenever downhole conditions permit; to allow for the buildup of wall cake; a plasterlike residue of mud solids.                                                                                                                               3. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations: Охлаждать и смазывать долото; предотвратить попадание пластового флюида; забойный двигатель; влиять на скорость проходки; избегать значительного падения скорости бурения; уменьшать время бурения и стоимость эксплуатации долота; прихват; перепады давления; создавать эффект оседания частиц; избегать ненужных ловильных работ; преодолеть пластовое давление; выброс; предотвратить разрыв колонны; иметь отрицательный эффект; закупоривать трещины (в скважине); поддерживать малое содержание твердой фазы (в буровом растворе); уменьшать гидравлическую мощность на долоте; усложнять очистку забоя; задавливать обсадные трубы; ненужные металлические обломки; добыча нефти; образование сальника.                                                                               
  2. Home task: (3 min.)                                                                                                                           1.Students should work with the dictionary.                                                                                               2.To translate the text.                                                                                                                           3.Write the content of the new lecture.
VII. Evaluation: (5 min.)                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Students are evaluated:                                                                                                                                    1. On the results of the home assignment.                                                                                                     2. On the basis of the new theme.                                                                                                            3. The active work.                                                                                                                           4. Fulfillment of the task.                                                                                                             
 
 
Әдебиеттер және оқу құралдарының тізбесі:
Негізгі әдебиеттер:
 The main literature:
  1. G.Seitenova., R IIchubaeva, Machines and apparatuses of oil and gas processing: Textbook.-Almaty, 2016.-331p
  2. Ahmetov S. Oil and gas technology high refined: study letter for college-level Ufa: Gilem, 2002.- 672p.
 
Қосымша әдебиеттер:
The additional literature:
  1. Alekseyev G.V., Khusnutdinova N.V. On solubility of the first boundary problem and Cauchy problem for equation of two-phase fluid one-dimensional flow //FEAS USSR. vol.202, no.2. 1972.                                                                                                              
 Оқу құралдары мен электронды оқулықтар тізімі:
 Web-resources:
  1. http://www.npc.org/Prudent_Development-Topic_Papers/2-Sustainable_Drilling_of_Onshore_Oil_and_Gas_Wells_Paper.pdf