Нурмагамбетова Нурия Сакеновна
Студент 1 курса
Shoqan Shynghysuly Walikhanov was a Kazakh scholar, ethnographer, historian and participant in The Great Game. Wide popularity and glory of the fearless traveler and talented orientalist brought Sh. Walikhanov a trip in 1858 to Kashgariya, or East Turkestan. This area, inhabited by Uighurs, Dungans, Kazakhs and Kirghiz, in the late 50’s. XVIII century was conquered by the Qing Empire. In connection with the anti-Cinematic performances of the 50s of the XIX century, a visit to this region was extremely dangerous. For example, in 1857 there was an uprising under the leadership of Khoja Valikhan-Ture, who for 110 days was the unlimited ruler of Kashgar. After that, the Chinese authorities banned the trip to Kashgariya under the threat of death. The Russian scientist VP Vasiliev wrote that the Manchu government «looked at huge and diverse countries: Mongolia, Dzungaria, Turkestan, Tibet and China as their prey and greedily followed to protect these countries from any contact with the rest of the world.»
In archival funds, the document «On sending the Lieutenant Sultan Sh. Ualikhanov to Kashgar» was preserved. The organizers of this trip were the head of the Asian Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire EP Kovalevsky and the geologist P. Semenov Tian-Shansky. The idea of including Sh. Ualikhanov in the composition of the merchant caravan in the guise of a conductor was submitted by P. Semenov-Tian-Shansky. Since August 1857, preparations for a trip to Kashgariya began. Preparation and dispatch of the merchant caravan in the city of Semipalatinsk was carried out on behalf of the Governor-General G. Kh. Gasfort by his assistant KK Gutkovsky. Preparing for the trip to Kashgariya, Sh. Walikhanov re-read all available literature on Eastern Turkestan. June 28, 1858, a commercial caravan, led by merchant Musabai Toktabaev, sets off on a journey. In his report on the trip to Kashgariya, Sh. Walikhanov wrote: «Lieutenant Valikhanov set off on June 28, 1858 from the Karamula tract, 30 versts from Kapala, along with the merchant’s caravan in Kashgar and took the precautionary name of Alimbai Abdillabayev, a Kokand citizen. The entire convoy consisted, in addition to the caravanbash, in seven stewards (Kazakhs) and 34 servants; with them there were 101 camels and 65 horses. The caravan arrived in Kashgar in early October 1858 and the time there until March 11, 1859 «.
Eastern Turkestan was a place where the ancient Indo-Iranian and Chinese civilizations crossed, the nomadic Turkic world and the sedentary-agricultural culture. In his work «Sketches of Dzungaria» Sh. Walikhanov wrote: «At the end of 1858 I managed to penetrate into Kashgar with the Kokand caravan, as a Kokand merchant, in which, after the famous Italian Marco Polo (in 1272) and the Portuguese Jesuit Benedict Goes (in 1603) there were only two Europeans: a German, an officer of the East India Service, unknown by name, after which a very curious route and a note about his journey remained, and the learned Prussian Adolph Schlagintweit. The first one was a bit in Kashgar with bamboos so painful that it could not sit on a horse for two days, the second one was cut off and placed on a tower built of human heads. «
The famous German traveler, who was on the service of British intelligence, Adolph Schlagintweit, who penetrated India to Kashgariya the year before Sh. Ualikhanov, was executed by the order of Khoja Valikhan-Ture. Sh. Walikhanov brought reliable information about this tragic death of the scientist.
Sh. Walikhanov was in Kashgar from October 1858 to March 1859. During this period, he managed to explore the Altyshar region. Altyshar (Shestigradye) called the cities of Kashgar, Aksu, Uch-Turfan, Yanysar, Yarkand and Khotan of East Turkestan. Sh. Walikhanov collected eastern manuscripts and other materials on the history, geography, economic condition of Eastern Turkestan.
In Eastern Turkestan, Walikhanov collected historical information from local official documents and works, a number of unique manuscripts and a numismatic collection. He drew attention to such a source on the history of East Turkestan, as «Mohammed Haydar’s» Tarih-i Rashidi «, compiled in 1544-1546. Sh. Walikhanov discovered in Kashgar the continuation of this work — «Tazkira-i Khojagan» («History of the Khoja Dynasty»).
The trip and stay of Sh. Walikhanov in Kashgariya was extremely difficult and dangerous, but fortunately it ended well. On April 12, 1859, the merchant caravan returned to Verny.
The results of his expedition to Kashgariya were contained in his major work «On the state of Altyshar or the six eastern cities of the Chinese province of Nan-lu (Malaya Bukharii).» Its main chapters are:
І. Geographical overview.
ІІ. Historical essay.
III. Population and its composition.
- Governmental system and political state of the region.
- Industry and trade.
Later, European scholars contributed to the dissemination of the works of Sh. Walikhanov on Eastern Turkestan in Austria and Germany. They were translated into English by the brothers D. and R. Michelli.